The Korean War (1950-1953)
Sections:
  1. Harry Truman
  2. Statement by President Truman Relieving Gen. MacArthur of his Military Duties (1951)
  3. General Douglas MacArthur
  4. Honey Bucket Express
  5. Herb Block Political Cartoon
  6. Irvin Dugan Political Cartoon
  7. Data from the Korean War
  8. Data on Casualties During the Korean War
  9. Public opinion on the Korean War, 1953 Memorandum on recent polls (June 2, 1953)
  10. Korean War Armistice Map
  11. Irvin Dugan “Korean War”
  12. Lesson Plans
  13. PowerPoint Presentations
Harry TrumanTop
Attached Documents
The following picture is a political cartoon by John Chase. The political cartoon illustrates the disagreement between President Truman and MacArthur. The cartoon was drawn approximately six months prior to MacArthur being removed from the commander of the Korean War.

Questions to Consider
1. Who is the man pictured in the cartoon?
2. Whose hat is the man wearing? What happened in history that would make the cartoonist draw this picture?
3. Why is the hat pictured so big in the picture?

     Truman Cartoon.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm049.html
Statement by President Truman Relieving Gen. MacArthur of his Military Duties (1951)Top
Attached Documents
The following is a statement written by President Truman regarding the removal of General MacArthur from Commanding General MacArthur during the Korean War.
     Statement by President Truman Relieving MacArthur.rtf  
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/05/documents/macarthur/
General Douglas MacArthurTop
Historical Context
General Douglas MacArthur was a high ranking military commander during the mid 1900’s. President Harry Truman placed MacArthur in the position of commanding officer during the Korean war. MacArthur became an unpopular figure in the war when the war reached a stalemate. President Truman removed MacArthur from his position in the Korean war and at that point, MacArthur retired.

Attached Documents
The following is an excerpt from his speech to Congress on April 19, 1951.

Questions to Consider
1. What does MacArthur say is true about both Europe and Asia in page 1?
2. What does MacArthur say is the problem about succumbing to Communism in Asia?
3. What does MacArthur say is the importance of the Pacific Ocean?

     General MacArthur.rtf  
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/filmmore/reference/primary/macspeech05.html
Honey Bucket ExpressTop
Historical Context
The Honey Bucket Express was a small newspaper published by the 363rd Reconnaissance Squad. The newspaper was only published twice, however to some of the men stationed in Korea during the war it meant a great deal.

Questions to Consider
1. What was one of the greatest values of the tiny newspaper?
2. Why was it important to publish the material it did?
3. What type of normalcy did the paper provide to the troops who read it?

     Excerpt from the Honey Bucket Express.rtf  
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.koreanwar.org/html/units/frontline/morris/honey.htm
Herb Block Political CartoonTop
Attached Documents
The following is a political cartoon by Herb Block, published May 7, 1951. The cartoon follows the relieving General MacArthur from his commanding position in the Korean War. MacArthur wanted a much more aggressive policy whereas Defense Secretary George Marshall stated that MacArthur’s tactics would lead to a 3rd world war.

Cartoon Caption: "We've been using more of a roundish one."

Questions to Consider
1. What is ironic about the cartoon?
2. What are the two shapes of the maps illustrating?
3. Who are the two figures illustrated in the cartoon?

     s03409u.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/ticktock.html
Irvin Dugan Political CartoonTop
Attached Documents
The following cartoon illustrates the United States fear of communism and North Korea.

Questions to Consider
1. What is the cartoonist using as symbolism? What message is he trying to promote?
2. What does the phrase, “it’s getting’ redder ‘n’ redder” refer to?
3. What is the response when viewing this cartoon? Is it serious or humorous?

     korea2.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.marshall.edu/library/speccoll/virtual_museum/dugan/politics.asp
Data from the Korean WarTop
Attached Documents
The following data is United States Military Strengths in Korea and Japan starting in 1950.

Questions to Consider
1. According to the data, what was the total number of troops in Korea in January 1950?
2. What was the highest number of troops in Korea?
3. Building on what you know, how were many of the troops enlisted in the military for Korea? Was it voluntary, through a draft, or both? What is your opinion on this topic?

     Data from the Korean War.rtf  
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.army.mil/cmh/documents/237ADM.htm
Data on Casualties During the Korean WarTop
Questions to Consider
1. According to the data table, what is a casualty and how many were there during the Korean War?
2. According to the data table, how many total deaths occurred in the Korean war? How does the data define total deaths?
3. Building on what you know, how does the number compare to the total casualties of American soldiers during World War II?
     Data on Casualties During the Korean War.rtf  
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.army.mil/cmh/documents/237ADM.htm
Public opinion on the Korean War, 1953 Memorandum on recent polls (June 2, 1953) Top
Attached Documents
The following is a memorandum regarding public opinion regarding the Korean War. Questions that the public were asked included “do you think we will reach a satisfactory agreement with the Communists in the next month or so to stop the fighting in Korea, If we go to a truce at the current battle line, would it seem as if we had generally succeeded or generally failed in our main purpose of going in Korea…” The memorandum asked a variety of questions to determine how the public would feel about an exit strategy from North Korea. (www.eisenhower.utexas.edu). Read the following memorandum and answer the following questions.

Questions to Consider
1. Looking at question one, did the majority of the American public think the U.S. could reach a satisfactory agreement with North Korea?
2. Did the majority of Americans agree to signing an armistice?
3. Did the majority of the American public think the U.S. should take strong steps to end the war in Korea?
4. Did Americans prefer fighting in Korea or not fighting in Korea? Did this change over time?

     Publicopinionpoll62531.jpg
     Publicopinionpoll62532.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.eisenhower.utexas.edu/Korea/documents/publidcopiniononthekoreanwar.html
Korean War Armistice MapTop
Attached Documents
The following map illustrates the armistice line signed to end the Korean War. Using the map as well as the public opinion poll previously displayed in this module, answer the following questions.

Questions to Consider
1. Where was the armistice line created between the two countries?
2. Looking at the public opinion poll as well as the map, do you think the armistice was a good idea? Did the United States accomplish its goal in Korea? Why or why not?

     korea4.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/05/maps/#
Irvin Dugan “Korean War”Top
Questions to Consider
1. What is the cartoonist saying about victory in Korea?
2. Do you think the cartoonist agreed with the Korean War? Why or Why not? What in the cartoon gives you that impression?
     korea1.jpg
Citations:
Original Document: http://www.marshall.edu/library/speccoll/virtual_museum/dugan/politics.asp
Lesson PlansTop
Below are lesson plans relevant to this topic.
     TM The Korean War Grades 9 through 12.rtf  
PowerPoint PresentationsTop
Below is a PowerPoint presentation which can be used the the classroom and incorporates the above material.
     The Korean War.ppt  
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